Tuesday, July 8, 2008

Melia Azedarach Factsheet

AgroForestryTree Database

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Botanic Name
Common Name
Melia azedarach
Species identity
Ecology and distribution
Propagation and management
Functional uses
Pests and diseases
Additional Info

Species identity
Current name: Melia azedarach
Authority: L.
Family: Meliaceae

Melia bukayan Royle.
Melia composita Willd.
Melia dubia Cavanilles
Melia japonica Don.
Melia sempervirens (L.) Sw.

Common names

(Bengali) : bakarjan, ghora nim, mahanim, mahnim
(Cantonese) : mindi kechil
(English) : azedarach, bead tree, China berry, China tree, Persian lilac, pride of India, syringa
(Filipino) : bagaluñga, balagañgo, paraiso
(French) : Fleurs lilas, Piment d'eau
(Hausa) : kurnam nasara
(Hindi) : bakain, bakarja, betain, deikna, dek, drek, mallan nim
(Indonesian) : gringging, marambung, mindi
(Khmer) : dâk' hiën
(Lao (Sino-Tibetan)) : h'ienx, kadau s'a:ngz
(Luganda) : lira
(Malay) : mindi kecil
(Nepali) : bakaina, bakaino, bakena
(Sanskrit) : mahanimba
(Spanish) : Alilaila, Arbol enano, Lila, Lilayo, mal kohomba, Paraíso, Violeta
(Swahili) : mmelia, mwarubaini nusu
(Tamil) : malai vembu, mallay vembu, puvempu
(Thai) : khian, lian, lian-baiyai
(Tigrigna) : melia
(Trade name) : persian lilac
(Vietnamese) : c[aa]y xoan, s[aaf]u d[oo]ng, xoan d[aa]u
(Yoruba) : eke-oyinbo

Botanic description
Melia azedarach is a deciduous tree up to 45 m tall; bole fluted below when old, up to 30-60 (max. 120) cm in diameter, with a spreading crown and sparsely branched limbs. Bark smooth, greenish-brown when young, turning grey and fissured with age. Leaves alternate, 20-40 cm long, bipinnate or occasionally tripinnate. Leaflets 3-11, serrate and with a pungent odour when crushed. Inflorescence a long, axillary panicle up to 20 cm long; flowers showy, fragrant, numerous on slender stalks, white to lilac; sepals 5-lobed, 1 cm long; petals 5-lobed, 0.9 cm long, pubescent; staminal tube deep purple blue, 0.5 cm long, 1 cm across. Fruit a small, yellow drupe, nearly round, about 15 mm in diameter, smooth and becoming a little shrivelled, slightly fleshy. Seed oblongoid, 3.5 mm x 1.6 mm, smooth, brown and surrounded by pulp. Because of the divided leaves, the generic name is derived from the Greek 'melia' (the ash); the specific name comes from the Persian 'azzadirackt' (noble tree).
Ecology and distribution
History of cultivation
This tree, well known as Persian lilac, is native to India but is now grown in all the warmer parts of the world; in many of these places it is naturalized. It is widely planted in Nigeria, for example.
Natural Habitat
A tree of the subtropical climatic zone, the natural habitat of M. azedarach is seasonal forest, including bamboo thickets, Tamarindus woodland. It is highly adaptable and tolerates a wide range of conditions; for example, the most frost-tolerant cultivars can be planted outdoors in sheltered areas in the British Isles.
Geographic distribution
Native : Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam
Exotic : Afghanistan, Albania, Argentina, Australia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, China, Croatia, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, Republic of, Lesotho, Malta, Mexico, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Tanzania, Tonga, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States of America, Zanzibar

Biophysical limits
Altitude: 0-1800 m, Mean annual temperature: 23-27 deg. C, Mean annual rainfall: 350-2000 mm Soil type: Deep, fertile, sandy loam soils support the best growth.

Reproductive Biology
It flowers from March to May in the northern hemisphere, although some forms flower throughout the summer and even throughout the year.

Propagation and management
Propagation methods
Fruit drop is limited, and ripe fruit clings to the branches for several months even after the leaves have fallen. Propagation is by direct sowing or by planting out seedlings or stumps; 85% germination may be expected in 2 months.

Tree Management
Under optimal conditions, M. azedarach grows fast. It is generally deciduous, but some forms in the humid tropics (e.g. in Malaysia and Tonga) are evergreen. Does not coppice well from large stumps, but excellent coppice is obtained from trees up to a girth of 0.9 m. The tree resprouts after cutting and regrows after pollarding, making it suitable for pole production.

Germplasm Management
Seed storage behaviour is orthodox. Viability is maintained for 1-3 years in hermetic storage at room temperature with 11-15 % mc. There are 470-2800 seeds/kg.

Functional uses
Fodder: Leaves are lopped for fodder and are highly nutritious. Fuel: Fuelwood is a major use of M. azedarach. It has a calorific value is 5100 kcal/kg. Timber: M. azedarach wood (the 'white cedar' of commerce), which resembles mahogany, is used to manufacture agricultural implements, furniture, plywood, boxes, poles, tool handles; it is used in cabinet making and in construction because of its resistance to termites. The density is 510-660 kg/cubic m. Lipids: Oil suitable for illumination has been extracted experimentally from berries. Poison: Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of leaves and seed reportedly control many insect, mite and nematode pests. However, because they contain toxic components, care is needed in their use. The fruit of M. azedarach is highly toxic to warm-blooded animals; the consumption of 6-8 fruit can cause nausea, spasms, and in children, even death. Medicine: M. azedarach is well known for its medicinal uses. Its various parts have antihelmintic, antimalarial, cathartic, emetic and emmenagogic properties and are also used to treat skin diseases. Dried ripe fruit is used as an external parasiticide; some toxic components are found in the seed oil, the oral intake of which may cause severe reactions and even death. Other products: Fruit stones make ideal beads and are used in making necklaces and rosaries.

Shade or shelter: Widely planted as a shade tree in coffee and abaca (Musa textilis) plantations. Ornamental: A well-known ornamental grown, for example, as an avenue tree, for its scented flowers and shady, spreading crown. Intercropping: M. azedarach is a useful species for growing with crops such as wheat. It has been successfully planted with sugarcane.

Pests and diseases
The trees are attacked by fungi that cause brownish butt rot and brownish pocket rot. Certain larvae defoliate the tree and mine the leaves.

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